Intermittent to continuous piped water supply

Evaluation of the conversion from intermittent to continuous piped water supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India

In 2010, we set up a study to evaluate the conversation from intermittent piped water supply to continuous supply (’24×7′) in Hubli-Dharwad, India, where 10% of the population was switched to 24×7 supply and the remaining residents accessed piped water intermittently. We studied the impacts of this conversion on water quality, health, and household economics. This also provided us an opportunity to study features of an intermittent supply, including the mechanisms leading to contamination in these systems and the quantities of water consumed by households with unreliable water delivery. The papers resulting from this project are below, with more on the way.

Water quality

Kumpel, E. and Nelson, K. L. (2014) Mechanisms affecting water quality in intermittent supply. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(5), 2766–2775. online

Kumpel, E. and Nelson, K. L. (2013) Comparing Microbial Water Quality in an Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supply. Water Research, 47(14), 5176–5188. online

Household economics

Burt, Z., and Ray, I. (2014). Storage and Non-Payment: Persistent Informalities Within the Formal Water Supply of Hubli-Dharwad, India. Water Alternatives, 7, 106–120. online


Ercumen, A., Arnold, B. F., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K.L., and J. M. Colford Jr. (2015). Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India. PLoS Medicine 12(10). online

Water quantity

Kumpel, E., Woelfle-Erskine, C., Ray, I., and Nelson, K.L.. Household water access and use in an intermittent piped water distribution system. In review.

Jayaramu, K.P., Burt, Z., Manoj Kumar, B., 2015. A study of the consumption pattern in a continuous water service demonstration zone and bulk water demand forecasting for Hubli-Dharwad, India.Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5, 201-212. online